Deep sea fishing is a branch of saltwater fishing that usually involves catching species living hundreds of miles below sea level, preferably by boat. These species include flounders, sea bass, sharks and marlins. There are specific ways to catch each specie although these methods are derived from the following types of approach:
Trolling: The first approach is by trolling. Trolling is done by dragging a bait or lure behind a moving boat. There are a lot of living sea creatures, not only limited to fishes, that can be caught through trolling. Some boats are customized just for trolling, with rod holders attached to the stern or gunwales of the boat, which looks a lot like pipe holders. The rod is held at an angle to the water which gives the fisherman a free hand to maneuver the boat. Poles are also built perpendicular to the side of the boat, frequently called outriggers. A line clip holds the fishing line that moves to the end by the use of a trolley. These are often used on boats trolling for marlin, swordfish and sailfish. This contraption is useful in controlling the baits and lures on the side from getting tangled up with the baits and lures from the rods at the stern.
Fishing: The second approach is bottom fishing. As the name implies, the baits and lures are placed directly on the surface of the ocean floor. The boat remains stationary at a certain area that they believe may contain fish, with an anchor holding it in place. Fishing maps and GPS coordinates will help the fishermen determine fully the exact location of these fish, usually found hiding a structure under water or on an open bottom. Species of fish caught with this method of fishing are blackfish, sea bass, porgies, cod, mackerel or whiting.
Drifting: A third approach in fishing is drifting. The boat is allowed to drift in the water, with any anchors and sometimes with the motor turned off. They go with the flow of the wind, tide or current. The lures and baits are also found at the bottom of the ocean floor or at mid levels, depending on what fish to catch. This method can also be used to locate the area where fish are concentrated. They anchor to the supposed spot or drift repetitively over it.
The fourth approach in fishing is chumming, which involves the use of ground bait, or chum, to entice fish to go closer to the boat. When they are near enough, they catch them using lures or bait. Depending on the weather and the type of specie to be caught, the boat may be drifting or fixed to one area. Chum is made by grinding baitfish into a soup like consistency and pouring it over the side of the boat so a chum slick scatters out in the water. The fish will be attracted to the scent of this chum and look for its source which will lead them to the side of the boat, where lures and baits are attached. Chum can also be disseminated into the water by making it into a frozen block, placing it in a crate, then attached to the hull of the boat. While it melts, it will form chum slick on the water.
Chunking: The fifth approach is chunking which is quite similar to chumming but uses small pieces of bait in the chum slick. The purpose of this is to provide substantial food for the big fishes that get attracted by the chum slick to prolong their stay near the boat and eventually get caught. Most fast swimming species like tuna and large species of fishes do not linger around chum slick especially if they cannot get something concrete to eat from it.
There are several equipment made specially for ocean fishing trips. A gaff Is used to pull in large fish from the side. It is a pole with a large hook at the end. For really big ones like sharks, and some tuna species, a flying gaff is used. It basically resembles the common gaff but the hook is removable from the end, attached to a rope that allows you to pull the fish out. Some attach fighting chairs on the deck of their boats, bolted to the floor, to anchor themselves when the fish gets become too big to handle. The angler is tied down to the chair with a gimbal in front. The rod is placed into the gimbal to serve as a pivot point in reeling the fish in the boat.